Month: August 2014

Personal Pronouns

Independent pronouns

  sing pl
1 Kir Jen
2 Nol Nöön
3 Vath Vään

Reflexive Pronouns

  sing pl
1 öör öjen
2 onol önöön
3 ovath övään


In order to conjugate a verb:

  • Remove the ending -hi or -ihi from the infinitive form to obtain the short stem ending in a vowel or consonant, respectively.
  • Identify if you require the short or long stem for the aspect/tense you are looking for, using the following table
Short Stem   Long Stem
Present Hodiernal
Imperfect -n Perfect Past
Past Habitual -j Ancient
Present Subjunctive ~dh Past Subjunctive
Future ahi + infinitive Conditional
Converbial -s Converbial
  • If you require the long stem refer to this post on how to form it.
  • For the first row skip this step. For rows 2, 3, and 6 just add the indicated suffix to the stem. For the subjunctive tenses the preceding vowel gets lengthened and then the suffix -d or -dh is added. For the 5th row you’ll have to properly conjugate the auxiliary verb ahi and then add the verb infinitive.
  • Finish by adding the ending according to the subject for regular verbs, or according to the object for experiencer verbs. 
Personal Pronoun (sh) Ending (1) Ending (2)
Kir -ar -ra
Nol -al -la
Vath -ith -tha
Jen -ajel -jel
Nöön -anil -nil
Vään -avil -vil