In Shivaisith there are 15 cases, divided into 5 groups.
- Grammatical: Nominative, Accusative, Dative
- Relational: Genitive, Comitative, Instrumental
- Exterior: Adessive, Allative, Ablative
- Interior: Inessive, Illative, Elative
- Equative: Essive, Translative, Benefactive
To decline a word a suffix is added according to the following table.
In order to conjugate a verb:
- Remove the ending -hi or -ihi from the infinitive form to obtain the short stem ending in a vowel or consonant, respectively.
- Identify if you require the short or long stem for the aspect/tense you are looking for, using the following table
||ahi + infinitive
- If you require the long stem refer to this post on how to form it.
- For the first row skip this step. For rows 2, 3, and 6 just add the indicated suffix to the stem. For the subjunctive tenses the preceding vowel gets lengthened and then the suffix -d or -dh is added. For the 5th row you’ll have to properly conjugate the auxiliary verb ahi and then add the verb infinitive.
- Finish by adding the ending according to the subject for regular verbs, or according to the object for experiencer verbs.
|Personal Pronoun (sh)
Look at the following words:
What do they all have in common?
In Shiväisith all verbs end in -hi or in -ihi, which makes them easy to recognize.
If we remove the -hi or -ihi ending we obtain the Imperfect Stem or Short Stem, when it ends in a vowel or in a consonant, respectively, and thus obtain:
To this stem we will add the proper ending in order to conjugate the verb, this means that the verb will take a different ending depending on who is performing the action. This endings are depicted in the following table
|Personal Pronoun (en)
||Personal Pronoun (sh)
|He / She /It
The endings that begin in a vowel (Ending (1) in the above table) are used when the stem ends in a consonant, and the second ending is used when the stem ends in a vowel.
It is important to note that Shiväisith does not have gender distinction in the third person, this means that you would use Vath independent if you are talking about a person (of any gender) or an object.
It is also noteworthy for English speakers that Nol is a singular pronoun, which means that if you are addressing a group of people you’d have to use a different pronoun.
Let’s try a couple of example sentences:
The most difficult aspect in figuring out the stem occurs when the verb infinite form ends in -ihi, in this case there are two options:
- The stem ends in a i, like in Livihi (short stem Livi),
- The stem ends in the consonant preceding the i, ex: Dahihi (short steam dah-) and Vurihi (short stem vur-),
there is no way to distinguish between these cases, so for these verbs is better to learn the stem along with the verb.
Vocabulary used in this lesson
- Kir – I
- Nol – You (singular)
- Vath – He / She / It
- Dahihi – to curse
- Livihi – to attack
- Lorahi – to fly
- Vurihi – to see